The Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) is a global hub of knowledge and policy expertise on migration and development issues.
The Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) is a global hub of knowledge and policy expertise on migration and development issues. KNOMAD draws on experts from all parts of the world to synthesize existing knowledge and generate new knowledge for use by policy makers in sending and receiving countries. KNOMAD works in close coordination with the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) and the Global Migration Group (GMG). The World Bank has established a multi-donor trust fund to implement the KNOMAD. The Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) are the largest contributors to the trust fund. Within the World Bank, KNOMAD is located in the Jobs Group of the Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice. KNOMAD is led by Dilip Ratha.
KNOMAD's core objectives are:
generating and synthesizing knowledge on migration issues for countries;
generating a menu of policy choices on multidisciplinary knowledge and evidence; and
providing technical assistance and capacity building to send and receiving countries for the implementation of pilot projects, evaluation of migration polices and data collection.
Migration has become a defining issue for development, and there is substantial scope for strengthening cross-sectoral collaboration and knowledge sharing on this growing agenda. With over 250 million international migrants (including 15 million refugees) and over 750 million internal migrants within countries, nearly 1 out of every 7 persons in the world is a migrant. South-South migration is currently larger than South-North migration, and is likely to continue growing rapidly. In the coming decades, demographic changes, persistent income disparities, declining communication and transportation costs, and increasing access to information, will strengthen the impetus towards migration. Climate change also has the potential to displace large sections of the population in some parts of the world.
Migrant remittances provide a lifeline to the poor in many developing countries. Estimated to have reached about $432 billion in 2015, remittances are about three times higher than the volume of official aid flows to developing countries. In several countries, remittances are equivalent to more than 10 percent of GDP and constitute the largest source of foreign exchange. A country’s diaspora can be a major source of investment, technology, business contacts, and development assistance. At the same time, the loss of skills associated with migration can affect the delivery of basic services in the countries of origin, especially small countries. In destination countries, migrants can be an important economic resource, but they may also compete with native workers and affect cultural and national identity. Along the way, migrants need to be protected against fraud, abuse and exploitation.
Thematic Working Groups
The KNOMAD Advisory Committee is chaired by a member of the World Bank Group’s senior management, and comprising a high level representative of the largest donors to the trust fund, the ex officio current chair of the GFMD, the ex officio past chair and the ex officio upcoming chair of the GFMD, the ex officio chair of the GMG, and a representative from civil society. The Advisory Committee provides strategic vision and direction for the KNOMAD and makes recommendations on the work program.
The KNOMAD draws on existing knowledge networks, international organizations, think tanks, research centers, and universities (including those from the South), and civil society.
After a one year inception phase, KNOMAD entered a 5-year implementation phase in May 2013. An evaluation will be undertaken at the end of the third year. The final two years will be devoted to capacity building and a few pilot programs. KNOMAD is envisaged to end in 2018.