Migration and Development Brief

Migration and Development Brief 36

A War in a Pandemic. Implications of the Ukraine crisis and COVID-19 on global governance of migration and remittance flows (May 2022).

Report Chapters and Remittance Inflows and Outflows Data


  1. A Financial Lifeline for a Developing World at Risk
    1. Prior to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, remittances sustained strong momentum in 2021.
    2. Reasons for Sustained Growth in Remittances during 2021
    3. Top Remittance Source and Recipient Countries in 2021.
    4. The Outlook for 2022: Risks Escalate in the Wake of the Russian Invasion of Ukrain.
  2. Migration Trends
  3. Policy Issues
    1. Remittance Costs (SDG indicator 10.c.1)
    2. Improving Data on Remittance.
    3. Recruitment Costs (SDG indicator 10.7.1)
  4. Implications for Global Governance Architecture for Migration and Remittance Flows
    1. Global Governance of Migration
    2. The Twin Crises and the International Payment System
  5. Regional Trends in Migration and Remittance Flows
    1. Remittances to East Asia and the Pacific declined in 2021
    2. Remittances to Europe and Central Asia Were Stronger than Expected in 2021
    3. Remittances to Latin America and the Caribbean Surged in 2021
    4. Remittances to the Middle East and North Africa Registered Strong Growth in 2021
    5. Remittances to South Asia Increased in 2021
    6. Remittances to Sub-Saharan Africa Recovered in 2021

Projections Table

Projection table

Source: KNOMAD/World Bank staff; IMF Balance of Payments Statistics. See appendix in Migration and Development Brief 32 for forecasting methods (World Bank/KNOMAD 2020).

Note: e = estimate; f = forecast.